Copyright © 2011-2018 John N. Lupia III

One of the "The Three Magi" of American Numismatics

legends in their own time

and who are rightly called

"The Three Kings of American Numismatics"

Bowers, Quentin David (October 21, 1938-Present), of Stack's Bowers Galleries (New York City, Wolfeboro, NH, and Newport Beach, CA). Author, Coin Dealer, Research Scholar, Numismatist, Coin Collector, 43rdPresident of the ANA

He was born on October 21, 1938, one of three children (the other two are Eve and Bill) born to Quentin Homer Bowers (1914-1991) and Ruth Eleanor Garratt (1916-1988) at Honesdale, Pennsylvania. Bowers was born in a very wholesome and financially secure family that was very supportive and nurturing. This lovely familial quality shines forth in Dave Bowers as a gentleman and dealer par excellence. This is also vibrantly seen as well in his sons Wynn and Andrew who are charming, affable, and soft but very well-spoken just like their dad.

His paternal great-grandfather Charles Long Bowers married Nancy Ellen Smeltzer. His paternal grandfather is Charles Homer Bowers who married Beulah Gertrude Mumaugh.

His maternal great-great-grandfather was born in England. His maternal great-grandfather Lyman Raymont Garratt (1843-1921), was a farmer, and his wife Sara Selina Ham (1857-1936) lived at Honesdale, Pennsylvania. His grandfather, Chester Arthur Garratt (October 10, 1884-1951), married Eva Lena Wilson (1886-1951). It was here that his father and mother lived at the Garratt home at Honesdale, where grandfather, a lawyer, was the District Attorney.

Like Samuel Hudson Chapman and his younger brother Henry Chapman, Jr., Quentin David Bowers has been in the rare coin business since he was fifteen. He started out with his first coin, a well-worn 1893 Columbian half-dollar, gifted to him by his maternal grandfather, Chester Arthur Garratt (1884-1951), when he was a child.

Sometime about 1947 he won a cast iron bank filled with Indian Head Cents and old worn Lincoln Cents, at a Chinese auction held at the local Episcopal Church in Honesdale. However, he was not yet a coin collector at that time but was very interested in turtles and reptiles.

In 1948 his family moved to Forty Fort, Pennsylvania. In 1951, both maternal grandparents passed away and the 1893 Columbian half-dollar became his prized family heirloom. In 1952, he became very interested in rocks and minerals as a Boy Scout. He had heard about a fine mineral collection owned by the local Tax Collector, Robert L. Rusbar. He paid Mr. Rusbar a visit and was shown his entire collection. Rusbar asked the youth if he collected coins, to which Bowers answered “No.” Rusbar had a coin collection and showed that to young Bowers as well. He pointed out that the first coin in the album cost him $10 because it was the 1909-S V.D.B.[1] It was then that our subject became cognizant of the fictitious value applied to coins that stimulated his imagination. Rubar gave him a coin album with a few Lincoln Cents in the holes to get him started.

He went to the Forty Fort State Bank and exchanged $10 for twenty rolls of pennies hoping to find a 1909-S V.D.B. After going back to the Bank several times getting different rolls of pennies he soon nearly completed the set of Lincoln Cents minus the few key coins and discovered to his dismay that key coins are not readily found in circulation. He then turned his attention to other type coins and denominations he could cull out of change then in circulation. He wrote to the three U. S. Mints to learn which Proof coins he could purchase only to discover that only the Philadelphia Mint sold current Proof sets.

Soon he came upon the magazine published by Lee & Cliff Hewitt, The Numismatic Scrapbook Magazine, and a whole new world opened up to him. He became a member of the nearby Wilkes-Barre Coin Club, held at the YMCA in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. George P. Williams, of Kingston, an insurance salesman by profession was president of the Club, and took young Bowers under his wing.

Looking for coins from change, bank coin rolls and through advertisements in The Numismatist, Numismatic Scrapbook and Numismatic News brought him to run his own ads buying coins in his local newspaper.

He ordered his first coin, an 1859 Gem Proof Flying Eagle Cent, paying $11.00, through the mail from the Boston firm of the Copley Coin Company, run by Maurice M. Gould and Frank D. Washburn. His collecting area at that time was proof coins having caught the bug with this first mail order specimen and cognizant of the boom in the demand and price increases in that market.[2]

In May 1955, not yet 17 years-old Bowers could not yet join the ANA, but his father, Quentin Homer Bowers could, and is Member Nos. 24155.[3] His application for American Numismatic Association (ANA) membership was vouched for by George P. Williams. At the time ANA Junior membership was a minimum of 17 years of age and the amendment to reduce it to 16 was not passed.[4] His father loaned him $6,000 giving the young Dave Bowers working capital into which he established the greatest coin empire ever in American history, unsurpassable in every respect making him the "King of the King of the Coin Trade of All Time in America".

That same year, from August 24 to 27, 1955, he attended the ANA Convention at the Hotel Fontenelle, Omaha, Nebraska, and was the youngest ANA dealer ever to be given a table, though in his father’s name and through his membership.[5]

If there was ever a person who comprehended and capitalized on the old adage “You never get a second chance to make a good first impression”, it was Bowers. He mapped out for himself a master plan so strategically in an aggressive advertising campaign reinforced with his company collateral of coin pamphlets that it was virtually failsafe. This marketing campaign in The Numismatist was a boom from July through December 1955 with very appealing advertisements that made our young numismatist look like a million bucks. No one reading these advertisements ever would have guessed these ads were devised, designed and published by one so young. Bowers grasped the concept of creating a winning image and of offering a high quality coin inventory that made him a smashing success from his very grassroot beginning. He began marketing himself prior to the ANA Convention by placing a full-page advertisement in the July 1955 issue of The Numismatist, on page 790; and in the August issue on page 903, which said :”See You In Omaha!”. He published, Fixed Price List No 1, September-October, 1955, and a full-page advertisement in the September 1955 issue of The Numismatist, on page 1010.[6] He ran a two-page advertisement in the December 1955 issue of The Numismatist, on pages 1370 to 1371.

From 1955 on his numismatic mailing address was 203 Second National Bank Building, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.[7] He began to publish, Bulletin, that ran from September 1955 to 1956.[8] Part of Bulletin No. 1, was published as a full page advertisement in the November 1955 issue of The Numismatist, on page 1248.

When the ANA membership annual renewal came Q. D. Bowers applied, now over 17 years-old, in April 1956, and is Member No. 25659.[9]

His 1956 and 1957 advertising campaigns left The Numismatist and entered The Numismatic Scrapbook with exceptional marketing skill from January 1956 through August 1956. The January issue ran a two-page advertisement on pages 48 to 49. His second advertisement in February announced Bulletin No. 2 being prepared.[10] The March issue announced : “Several months ago we purchased what is probably the largest collection of Uncirculated and Proof nickels ever formed. It contained literally dozens and dozens of choice coins – up to forty proofs of some dates.”[11] His April advertisement was a full-page filled with gems including many proofs and uncirculated sets.[12] The [13]May advertisement was a full-page announcement of aggressive buying. In June a spectacular three-page advertisement showcasing a wide range of United States coins in gold, silver and copper.[14] The July advertisement listed proof coins in bulk quantities for Indian Head Cents, Shield Nickels and Liberty Head Nickels, also, a Proof 1839 Gobrecht Dollar, a set of Gem Proof Twenty-Cent pieces, Pattern Dollars and rare gold.[15] The August issue listed a Gem Proof complete set of Nickel Three-Cent pieces, Civil War Cents, Hard Times Tokens, and Large Cents.[16]

In the January 1957 issue of The Numismatic Scrapbook, he makes a prophetic forecast in the column, “The Crystal Ball,” where he predicts :

“The numismatic market for 1957 will be better than ever before. Prices of rare and top-grade coins 1915 and before will steadily increase, with emphasis on the 10c, 25c, and 50c Barber series in proof. Common material such as late proof sets and rolls will level off and perhaps even decrease slightly. More collectors will turn their interests from general collecting to specialization in one of the early series. With a new reference being published, half cents will show an increase in price and popularity. New records will continue to be set in all series when choice and rare items are offered. With hundreds of new collectors each month, the year 1957 will be the best in numismatic history.”[17]

The enigmatic comment on a new reference book being published on half cents was certainly a direct reference to Walter H. Breen.[18] This might have been one of the typed manuscripts Breen refers to that were stolen.[19]

His January advertisement featured Hard Times Tokens, Large Cents and Half Cents, predominantly in uncirculated and proof conditions.[20]

The March advertisement featured a complete set of Shield Nickels or Liberty Head Nickels each in Proof condition, complete set of brilliant gen uncirculated Liberty Standing Quarters, and many proofs in silver and gold of the early series.[21] The May advertisement listed many early type coins in uncirculated and proof conditions, and solicited readers to send for Q. David Bower’s Bulletin and a copy of the Penn-New York Auction Company catalog.[22] The August advertisement had the headline : Convention Specials, listing early series of dimes, quarters, half-dollars and silver dollars, and other rare type coins.[23] The September advertisement announced : “I will be breaking up a collection of approx. 160 different varieties of 1785-6-7-8 Connecticut cents. Serious collectors are invited to send want lists of Miller numbers.”[24] The October advertisement solicited to buy all series focusing on early type coins in choice and proof conditions.[25] The November advertisement featured an 1858 Choice Proof Silver Dollar; Gem Proof 1877 Shield Nickel; Gem Proof 1877 Nickel Three Cent; 1859 Choice Proof Silver Dollar, among other spectacular coin offerings.[26]The December issue featured a four-page advertisement announcement of Bowers Coin Company, with over $100,000.00 available to purchase stock. The coin offerings showcased a Choice Proof 1864 Two-Cent Piece, Small Motto; 1838 Choice Proof Liberty Seated Dime; 1921-D Choice Uncirculated Liberty Standing Half-Dollar, and other rarities.

Bowers most attention getting business in November 1957 was the purchase for $4,750.00 of the Cass specimen of the 1894-S Barber Dime in Stack’s coin auction, The Empire Collection, with James F. Ruddy as agent for Bowers.

In 1957, the Bowers Coin Company, as he styled himself, published Catalogue of Rare United States Coins (Prices Paid).[27] In April 1957, that same year he formed his first numismatic business partnership with James F. Ruddy, Jr., ANA Member No. 23159, who lived at 25 Spruce Street, Johnson City, New York.[28]Ruddy’s specialty was United States coins and Large Cents.[29] Ruddy was older than Bowers and joined the ANA in November 1954. Ruddy was already established as a coin dealer with his own firm, Triple Cities Coin Exchange, which he founded in 1954.[30] Together Bowers and Ruddy formed the Penn-New York Auction Company with a full-page advertisement announcement in the April issue of Numismatic Scrapbook.[31] The initial announcement slated the auction to be held late June, but it took place a month later.They published their first coin auction sale catalog, An Auction Sale of Rare United States Coins, to be sold on July 29, 1957.[32]The partnership appears to have been short-lived since Ruddy ran a three-page advertisement in the September 1957 issue of the Numismatic Scrapbook slating a Mail Auction Sale to be held on October 14, 1957[33]

During the first Bowers and Ruddy partnership, Q. David Bowers still kept his company, the Bowers Coin Company, Inc., 70 Court Street, Binghamton, New York.[34] He had been publishing a company bi-monthly,Bowers Review, having a distribution of 7,500 copies. Ruddy also kept Triple Cities Coin Exchange.[35]

In the January 1958 issue of The Numismatic Scrapbook, he makes a prophetic forecast in the column, “The Crystal Ball,” where he predicts :

“The numismatic marketing 1958 will continue the upward trend it has experienced in 1957. Prices of rare and top grade coins 1915 and before will continue to increase. The greatest demand in the proof series will be the proof Indian Cents, proof Barber 10c, 25c, and 50c, and proof Trade Dollars. General interest will continue to turn toward the relatively inexpensive series such as the bust-type half-dollars and half dimes. The majority of dates in both of these series can still be obtained for under $10 in uncirculated condition. More collectors will turn their interests toward specialization in the early series. There are great opportunities for the numismatist in the varieties of large cents and half cents. For those who prefer earlier Americana there are great possibilities in the field of American colonial coins. Coinages of the states offer the collector hundreds of varieties at inexpensive prices. In all series records will continue to be set whenever choice and rare are offered. With hundreds of new collectors each month, the year 1958 should even surpass 1957 to become the best numismatic year.”[36]

The January 1958 two-page advertisement of the Bowers Coin Company in The Numismatic Scrapbook, offered Matte Proof Cents 1909 to 1916, Proof Shield Nickels, Uncirculated Bust and Liberty Seated Dimes with some later dates in Proof, Proof Silver Three Cents, 1895 Proof Barber Dime, Proof Trade Dollars, and other rare coins.[37]

The April issue of The Numismatic Scrapbook, Bowers Coin Company ran its final advertisement as an independent coin dealership.[38]

On April 1, 1958, he formed a second partnership with James F. Ruddy, Jr., establishing themselves as The Empire Coin Company, a modern office coin shop and mail order coin firm based in Johnson City, New York, advertising a full-page in The Numismatist.[39] They began an active marketing campaign by producing corporate collateral that functioned as advertisements. In this respect they commissioned Alphonse Kold to create dies for a company token, and from its inception published Empire Topics beginning in the April-June1958 issue, and a scalloped edged paper diner placemats with “Coins of the United States” used by the Crystal Lunch Room, Main Street, Jonson City, New York, where they ate lunch.[40] Empire Topics was a bi-monthly that featured inventory items for sale as well as numismatic articles.

In June 1958, Empire Coin Company, Inc., in their advertisement in The Numismatic Scrapbook, offered the complete set of Nickel Three-Cent pieces including the overdate in uncirculated condition with the exception of 1869, and dates 1875-1889 in proof condition, all for $475.00; complete set of Silver Three-Cent pieces with dates 1851 to 1860 uncirculated and the rest proof, all for $625.00; complete set of Shield Nickels with 1866 to 1883 uncirculated and the rest proof, all for $650.00; complete set of Liberty Nickels all uncirculated except for 1884 to 1888, 1890 to 1896, 1900, 1901 and 1910 in proof, all for $595.00; complete set of Liberty Standing Half-Dollars, 1916-1945 all uncirculated for $2,850.00. Complete set of Commemorative Half-Dollars, $750.00; complete set of Barber Dimes (except 1894-S) all choice uncirculated, $3,750.00; complete set of Peace Dollars, choice uncirculated, $150.00; 1895 Proof Silver Dollar, $625.00; 1796 Quarter Good-Very Good, $150.00; 1794 Silver Dollar About Good, $325.00; 1913-S Barber Quarter, Gem Uncirculated, $500.00; 1916 Liberty Standing Quarter, Choice Uncirculated, $230.00; and many other rarities.[41]

In July 1958, they published the contents of Empire Topics, Issue No. 2, July-September, in The Numismatic Scrapbook, listing a choice selection of Colonial and State Coinages fully attributed; all series and types of United States coins, Encased Postage Stamps, Numismatic comments and replies to readers, and an original research article on United States and Colonial coins by Walter H. Breen, “Blundered Dies of Colonial and U.S. Coins,” on pages 15-18.[42]

In September 1958, they published the contents of Empire Topics, Issue No. 3, in The Numismatic Scrapbook, featuring a mail auction of Colonial and State coins, including all series of United States coins, Hard Times Tokens, Civil War Cents, Pattern and Trial pieces.[43]

In the October 1958 issue of The Numismatist they ran a very aggressive buying campaign.[44] The November advertisement featured a detailed description of Empire Topics, highlighting Issue No. 3, October-December (1958) containing their first mail auction that offered Maris 7-C the 1786 date under the beam New Jersey Cent, 1794, 1838, 1839, 1858 Silver Dollars, Proof Half Cents of 1835, 142, and 1850, 1796 Half-Dollar, and other rare coins.[45] The closing date for this mail coin auction was November 26, 1958.[46]

Amid the hectic coin business the subject of our sketch managed to graduate with a B. S. Pennsylvania State University, 1960.

On June 4, 1960 he married Mary Masters. They had two children. They were divorced in 1973.

1962, he co-authored with James F. Ruddy, and published by Creative Printing, Inc., A Division of Empire Enterprises, The Empire Guide to United States Half Cents 1793-1857, 47 pages, photographically illustrating and describing 132 varieties.

1965-1968, he was Director of the Paramount International Coin Corporation.[47]

In 1969 he formed a partnership with Terry Hathaway establishing Hathaway and Bowers Galleries, Inc., Santa Fe Springs, California.

On March 11, 1978 he married Christin R. Valentine in Los Angeles, California.

The author is a recipient of the Pennsylvania State University College of

Business Administration's Alumni Achievement Award (1976).

He has served as president of the Professional Numismatists Guild (1977-1979).

He has served as president of the American Numismatic Association (1983-1985) and he is a recipient of the highest honor bestowed by the ANA (the Farran Zerbe Award).

He was the first ANA member to be named Numismatist of the Year (1995); and he has been inducted into the ANA Numismatic Hall of Fame.

In July 1999, in a poll published in COINage, "Numismatists of the Century," by Ed Reiter, Bowers was recognized in this list of just 18 names.

He also serves as numismatic director and as a writer for Whitman Publications, LLC.

Bowers is a recipient of the highest honor given by the Professional

Numismatists Guild (The Founders' Award) and has received more "Book of the

Year Award" and "Best Columnist" honors given by the Numismatic Literary

Guild than has any other writer.

In 2000 he was the first annual recipient of the Burnett Anderson Memorial Award for writing.

He is the author of over 50 books, hundreds of auction and other catalogues,

and several thousand articles including columns in Coin World (now the

longest-running by any author in numismatic history), Paper Money, and, in

past years, The Numismatist. Among his books on the subject at hand are

Collecting Rare Coins for Profit, High Profits from Rare Coin Investment, A

Buyer's Guide to the Rare Coin Market, and The Expert's Guide to Collecting

and Investing in Rare Coins. Despite handling a large share of major

collections and just about every rarity in the book, Dave claims, "I have

never worked a day in my life. I love what I do." His prime enjoyments in

numismatics are knowing "coin people," from newcomers to old-timers, and

studying the endless lore and history of coins, tokens, medals, and paper


Incomplete Bibliography of Bowers’ Books and Publications

Fixed Price List No 1, (September-October, 1955)

Bulletin (1955-1956)

Bowers Review (1956-1958)

Catalogue of Rare United States Coins (Prices Paid) (1957)

An Auction Sale of Rare United States Coins, to be sold on July 29, 1957

Empire Topics (1958-1959)

The Empire Guide to United States Half Cents 1793-1857 (Johnson City, New York : Creative Printing, 1962)

Coins and Collectors (New York, New York : Bonanza Books, 1964)

Put Another Nickel In : An Action Guide For the Collector and Investor (New York, Vestal, 1966)

Encyclopedia of Automatic Musical Instruments (New York, Vestal, 1972)

High Profits From Rare Coin Investments (Los Angeles, California : Bowers & Ruddy Galleries, 1974)

Collecting Rare Coins For Profit (New York, New York : Harper & Row, 1975)

Adventures With Rare Coins (Los Angeles, California : Bowers & Ruddy Galleries, 1979)

The History of United States Coinage As Illustrated by the Garrett Collection. (Los Angeles, California : Bowers & Ruddy Galleries, Inc, 1979)

Virgil Brand : The Man and His Era. Profile of A Numismatist. (Wolfeboro, New Hampshire : Bowers & Merena Galleries, Inc., 1983)

United States Gold Coins : An Illustrated History (Wolfeboro, New Hampshire : Bowers and Merena Galleries, 1984)

The Moxie Encyclopedia (New York, Vestal, 1985)

Nickelodeon Theatres and Their Music (New York, Vestal, 1986)

Muriel Ostriche : Princess of Silent Films, An Early American Film Production (New York, Vestal, 1987)

How to Be A Successful Coin Dealer (Wolfeboro, New Hampshire : Bowers and Merena Galleries, 1988)

“Souvenir Postcards and the Development of the Star System, 1912-1914,” Film History, Vol. 3, No. 1, (1989) : 39-45

The American Numismatic Association Centennial History. 2 Volumes. (Colorado Springs, Colorado : American Numismatic Association, 1991)

American Numismatics before the Civil War 1760-1860 (Wolfeboro, New Hampshire : Bowers and Merena Galleries, Inc., 1998) :

Commemorative Coins of the United States : A Complete Encyclopedia

The Rare Silver Dollars Dated 1804 and the Exciting Adventures of Edmund Roberts : A Numismatic Exploration Into American History, Primarily Based Upon Contemporary Sources (Wolfeboro, New Hampshire : Bowers and Merena Galleries, 1999)

The Harry W. Bass, Jr., Museum Sylloge : A Museum Catalogue, Sylloge, Historical Information, And Collecting Notes For The Numismatist (Dallas, Texas : Harry W. Bass, Jr., Foundation, 2001)

The Official Red Book of Morgan Silver Dollars : 1878 to 1921 : America’s Most Popular Classic Coins(Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2004)

A Guide Book of Double Eagle Gold Coins : A Complete History and Price Guide (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2004)

A Guide Book of United States Type Coins : A Complete History and Price Guide For the Collector and Investor, Copper, Nickel, Silver and Gold (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2005)

The Expert’s Guide to Collecting & Investing in Rare Coins (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2006)

Grading United States Coins (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2006)

100 Greatest American Currency Notes : The Stories Behind The Most Fascinating Colonial, Confederate, Federal, Obsolete and Private American Notes (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2006)

Obsolete Paper Money Issued By Banks in the United States, 1782-1866, A Study and Appreciation For the Numismatist and Historian (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2006)

John W. Dannreuther, co-author, A Buyer’s Guide to Silver Dollars and Trade Dollars of the United States(Irvine, California : Zyrus Press, 2006)

A Guide Book of Washington and State Quarters : Complete Source For History, Grading and Prices (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2006)

A Guide Book of Shield and Liberty Head Nickels : Complete Source For History, Grading and Prices(Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2006)

A Guide Book For Morgan Silver Dollars : Complete Source For History, Grading and Prices (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2007)

A Guidebook of Buffalo and Jefferson Nickels : Complete Source For History, Grading and Values (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2007)

A Guidebook of United States Commemorative Coins : History, Rarity, Values

A Guidebook of Lincoln Cents : History, Rarity, Values, Grading, Varieties , Varieties A Guidebook (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2008)

A Guidebook of Gold Dollars : Complete Source For History, Grading and Values (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2008)

The Treasure Ship S. S. New York : Her Story, 1837-1846 (New York, New York : Stack’s LLC, 2008)

Whitman Encyclopedia of U.S. Paper Money (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2009)

Whitman Encyclopedia of Colonial and Early American Coins (Atlanta, Georgia : Whitman Publishers, 2009)

[1] Q. D. Bowers, Coins and Collectors (New York, New York : Bonanza Books, 1964) : 177

[2] Bowers, Coins and Collectors: 178

[3] The Numismatist, Vol. 68, May (1955) : 520

[4] Numismatic Scrapbook, September (1955) : 1209

[5] Photo of Hotel Fontenelle in the June 1955 issue of The Numismatist on page 650

[6] Bowers announced he was preparing his first bulletin in the September issue of The Numismatist. Davis cites the first Fixed Price List, which, at this time might have been the first bulletin. See Charles E. Davis,American Numismatic Literature : An Annotated Survey of Auction Sales 1980-1991. (Lincoln, Nebraska : Quarterman Publications, Inc., 1992) : No. 116, page 23

[7] The Numismatist, Vol. 70, July (1957) : 33

[8] Bowers advertised his periodical bulletins in the October issue of The Numismatist, on page 1137. See also Davis, op. cit., No. 117, page 23

[9] The Numismatist, April (1956) : 432

[10] Numismatic Scrapbook, Vol. 22, No. 2, February (1956) : 236-237

[11] ibid., March (1956) : 438-439

[12] ibid., April (1956) : 654

[13] ibid., May (1956) : 641

[14] ibid., June (1956) : 972 to 974

[15] ibid., July (1956) : 1218

[16] ibid., August (1956) : 1362

[17] Numismatic Scrapbook, Vol. 23, No. 1, January (1957) : 10

[18] E-Sylum, Vol. 6, No. 26, June 29, 2003, article 15

[19] Walter H. Breen,Walter Breens Encyclopedia of United States Half Cents 1793-1857 (South Gate California : American Institute of Numismatic Research,1983) : 3

[20] ibid., 93

[21] ibid., March (1957) : 516

[22] ibid., May (1957) : 927

[23] ibid. August (1957) : 1534

[24] ibid., September (1957) : 1751

[25] ibid., October (1957) : 1977

[26] ibid., November (1957) :2209

[27] Davis, op. cit., 118, page 23

[28] The Numismatist, Vol. 70, July (1957) : 145

[29] The Numismatist, Vol. 67, No. 11, November (1954) : 1210

[30] The Numismatist, Vol. 68, No. 11, November (1955) : 1275; No. 12, December (1955) : 1414; Numismatic Scrapbook, Vol. 22, No. 1, January (1956) : 9

[31] ibid., April (1957) :694

[32] Davis, op. cit., No. 119, page 24

[33] Numismatic Scrapbook, Vol. 23, No. 9, September (1957) : 1700-1702.

[34] See his entire three-page advertisement in the September 1960 issue of The Numismatist, on pages 1383-1385; and his four-page advertisement in the October, November, December 1960 issues of The Numismatist, on pages 1544-1547; 1714-1717; 1852-1855.

[35] Numismatic Scrapbook, Vol. 23, No. 4, April (1957) : 692-693

[36] ibid., Vol. 24, No. 1, January (1958) : 14-15

[37] ibid., 58-59

[38] ibid., Vol. 24, No. 4, April (1958) : 778

[39] Empire Topics, Issue 1, May-June, (1958) : 1; The Numismatist, Vol. 71, No. 9, September (1958) : 1099

[40] E-Sylum, Volume 9, Number 11, March 12, 2006, Article 7

[41] Numismatic Scrapbook, Vol. 24, No. 6, June (1958) : 1190-1191

[42] ibid., 1414-1415

[43] ibid., 1852-1853

[44] The Numismatist, Vol. 71, No. 10, October (1958) : 1224

[45] The Numismatist, Vol. 71, No. 11, November (1858) : 1379

[46] Numismatic Scrapbook, Vol. 24, No. 11 November (1958) : 2390-2391

[47] The Numismatist, Vol. 82, No. 7, July (1969) : 992