Copyright © 2011-2018 John N. Lupia III


This biography of Jacques Schulman published in  English is primarily written for the benefit of American numismatists. No coherent and 

thorough biographical information about Jacques Schulman and his heirs has ever been published in English. Consequently, in order to 

illuminate the subject essential facts about Schulman and the firm shall be given to aid the reader in appreciating the rich history of the 

Schulman firm and its heirs going on 140 years.

Fig. 1. Photograph of Jacques Schulman circa 1896, published in  100 Jaar Numismatiek : En reporte (Amsterdam 
Jacques Schulman, 1980)

Jacob "Jacques" Schulman (1849-1914) was born on April 11, 1849, at Hilversum, Province of North Holland, The Netherlands,

 of an affluent Jewish family, the son of David Israël Schulman (1823-), an antiquarian, jeweler, and master clockmaker, 

and Grietje Spier (1821-). 

         Jacob "Jacques" Schulman followed in his father's footsteps learning the family business. However, he and his sons as well as their heirs 

are internationally renown coin dealers. 

        In the 1860's, Jacques collected and studied coins and medals as a youth. 

        By the 1870's he aspired to become a professional numismatist. Soon he became an expert in Oriental, Portuguese, Brazilian and South 

American numismatics.

        In November 1880, Jacques established the family business on the corner of the shopping district on Langestraat,  

Amersfoort, Province of Utrecht, 27 kilometers southeast of  Hilversum. His first publication was his fixed price list

of Dutch coins published in French, subsequently publishing fixed price lists of coins, and auction catalogs for over 60 years. 

            Jacques Schulman created what he called a novelty in his 1880 publication putting the text into French 

allowing a broader market for clientele. The Netherlands is the one of the first European countries to establish coin 

dealing since the sixteenth century with dealers like Abraham van Goorle of Delft (1549-1608), and at Leiden the 

earliest known coin auction catalogue published in 1599. With three centuries of coin dealing in the Netherlands trading in Dutch

 and Latin, we find Jacques Schulman publishing in French, the diplomatic language.

            He is ANA member No. 653, and later given No. 1749. He was also a member of the British Numismatic Society, Koninklijk Nederlands 

Genootschap voor Munt- en Penningkunde, La Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique and also the Société Suisse de Numismatique.

            About 1873, he married Mina Frohwein (1848-1937), and they had seven children : Margot Jeannette (1874-), 

Julia (1875-), André (1877-1936), Maurits (1876-1943), Bertha Sara (1879-), Jacob "Jacques" II (1880-), and Helena (1881-).

Fig. 2. Photo of the Schulman Index Catalogue, published in  100 Jaar Numismatiek : En reporte (Amsterdam : Jacques Schulman, 1980)

From 1882-1883, he served as the secretary of the archaeological society Flehite.

From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed

 a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials. The 400,000 cards

were donated to the ANS library in 1987.

In 1889, he held his first coin auction.

"In 1894, with the rebuilding of the house of Anna van der Heijden in the Nieuwstraat a special discovery was made, which consisted of one big and two small jars with gold- and silver coins. The big jar contained 12.800 kilograms gold coins; the two small ones had together 9.900 kilograms of silver coins; the gold coins were all undamaged, the silver ones were mostly oxidized. They called the specialist Jacob Schulman. He immediately saw that there were a few very exceptional pieces. The oldest coin was from 1504 and the youngest from 1558. So the treasure must have been hidden for about 330 years. On the 26th of February the coins were temporarily moved to the Royal Cabinet of coins, medals and engraved stones in The Hague, where they were described and on July 18, 1894, they were sold in Amsterdam."

Jacques Schulman's catalogues are important in numismatic history and in the history of numismatic literature containing a wealth 

of information.

            His February 1901 catalogue of money and medals, and money of necessity or emergency consisted of 1,005 lots with 2 plates. 

            His Priced auction catalogue of February 1902 has three plates and contains a catalog of 1,577 lots of Greek, Roman, Byzantine 

and Indian coinages.             

            On May 15, 1902, he moved the shop from Amersfoort, Utrecht province, to the north in Amsterdam, Keizersgracht 448, Amsterdam,  

 and the business management was placed under the direction of his sons Maurits “ (1876-1943), and Geertruida Henrietta

 van Raalte had a son Hans Morits Friedrich Schulman (May 13, 1913- March 8, 1990), and André (1877-1936), and his son Jacques III (April 6,1906-April 9,1991).

SOLD at Discount (2017)  $465 USD

Fig. 3.  Very Rare specimen of Jacques Schulman, correspondence postmarked March 7, 1903.  Cover mailed to the Chapman Brothers, 1 Gulden 60 cts 

postage rate, international mail registered. Received at Philadelphia REGISTERED MAIL (back-stamped) March 10, 1903. Rare specimen containing 

the handwriting of Jacques. Courtesy the Lupia Numismatic Library, Special Collection, The Chapman Family Correspondence Archive. SOLD (2017)  $465 USD

Fig. 4. 4-line rectangular cartouche wax seal on back J. SCHULMAN NUMISMATE ------ AMSTERDAM. 

Courtesy the Lupia Numismatic Library, Special Collection, The Chapman Family Correspondence Archive. Now in Strijen, 

South Holland.

SOLD (2017) $465 USD. The new Dutch owners can double their money. 

Jacques Schulman died on February 28, 1914, four days after the Henry Grogan of London, sale of Colonial Coins.
Fig. 5. Photograph of André Schulman circa 1925.
After his death in 1914, Jacques' sons Max and Andreas and grandson Jacques II continued the family business at 
Keizersgracht 448, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, remaining one of the most important coin houses of Europe. 
Fig. 6. Photograph of Maurits Schulman circa 1930.
The eldest son Maurits was very involved with the American stock exchange and would frequently travel to the United States of 
America on business involving stocks, and also numismatics, and of course, to visit his son Hans in New York.

On December 4, 1919, Maurits Schulman gave the address before the ANA, published in the January 1920
 issue of The Numismatist, pages 29-34.
Fig. 7. Rare specimen of Maurits Schulman correspondence with Henry Chapman, Jr., postmarked May 22, 1925, Amsterdam. Courtesy the Lupia 

Numismatic Library, Special Collection, The Chapman Family Correspondence Archive. For sale. 


Fig. 8. Back side of cover with wax seals. Received at New York, and Philadelphia REGISTERED MAIL (back-stamped) May 29, 1925, 
and June 1, 1925, respectively. Courtesy the Lupia Numismatic Library, Special Collection, The Chapman Family Correspondence Archive.

For sale. Write

Maurits and André  Schulman had placed their sons Hans and Jacques in the firm at Amsterdam to learn the family business. When each 
 were of age they were sent to Paris to study at the Sorbonne. Jacques seven years Hans senior graduated first and returned to the family
Maurits Schulman correspondence with Henry Chapman, Jr., postmarked April, 1928. Courtesy the Lupia Numismatic Library, Special Collection, The Chapman Family Correspondence Archive.
  On November 8, 1929, Maurits Schulman read a paper "Medals Relating to American History," at the New York Numismatic Club, 
that was subsequently published in the March 1930 issue of The Numismatist, pages 133-137.

On November 23, 1936, André Schulman died.
Fig. 9. Photograph of Hans Schulman.
Fig. Hans M. F. Schulman Catalogue No. 25, 1944. Courtesy Lupia Numismatic Library.
Fig. Hans M. F. Schulman Catalogue No. 26, 1946. Courtesy Lupia Numismatic Library.
Fig. Hans M. F. Schulman, Old and Curious Money of the World (1946) Courtesy Lupia Numismatic Library.
Fig. Hans M. F. Schulman Circular 1946 advertising his Coin Collector's Almanac. Courtesy Lupia Numismatic Library.
Fig. Hans M. F. Schulman, Another  Circular 1946 advertising his Coin Collector's Almanac. Courtesy Lupia Numismatic Library.

In 1938, Hans Schulman graduated the Sorbonne, Paris, and did not return to the family business as Jacques had done, but rather, 
 left to the United States on the outbreak of the rise of the Nazi regime's terrorist campaign against Jews. Funded by his father, he opened 
shop at 545 Fifth Avenue, New York. As Herman Herst, Jr. relates his personal account in Germany at the outbreak of the Nazi regime
Jews were forced to convert their wealth into postage stamps in order to get their money out of the country. With Maurits and Hans working 
with Americans in the New York Stock Exchange and in the new coin shop in New York it gave the Schulmans leverage during WWII.
On July 2, 1943, Morits Schulman was killed by the Nazis during WWII. With Hans in New York it left his nephew, Jacques Schulman III to serve as the business manager
1966-1987. Jacques ran the firm with his wife Helena "Leny".
Fig. 10. Photograph of Helena Schulman published in  100 Jaar Numismatiek : En reporte (Amsterdam : Jacques Schulman, 1980)

Helena was the expert on ancient, middle eastern, Byzantine, Greek, Roman and archaeological artifacts.

Fig. 11. Photograph of Jacques Schulman III, circa 1953.

Fig. 12.  Hans Schulman co-authored with H. W. Holzer, The Coin Collectors Almanac (New York, 1946). Courtesy Lupia Numismatic Library.

Fig. Photo of Robert Schulman published in  100 Jaar Numismatiek : En reporte (Amsterdam 
Jacques Schulman, 1980)

During the late 1960's, Jacques Schulman III, put his two sons Robert (1938-) and Laurens (1948-) into the business.

Fig. Photo of Laurens Schulman published in  100 Jaar Numismatiek : En reporte (Amsterdam 
Jacques Schulman, 1980)

In 1987, Laurens Schulman and his wife Carla founded their own coin firm at Bussum, The Netherlands.

On March 8, 1990, Hans Schulman died.

  On April 9, 1991,  Jacques Schulman III, died three days after his 85th birthday. He is buried at Bussum, The Netherlands.

The firm of Laurens Schulman is now run by his daughter Yvette.

For Bibliography see below this advertisement.

Incomplete List of Works :

Bulletin Numismatique. No. 1. Liste de Papier-Monnaie, Medailles & Monnaies. J. Schulman, Amersfoort, November, 1893

Catalogue de Medailles de personnes illustres, medailles originales de Louis XIV et de Louis XV, &c. (1893)

      Catalogue d'Antiquités, de Curiosités et Tableaux. April 30-May 2, 1901

Catalogue d’une collection fort remarquable de medailles et monnaies ayant rapport a la Revolution francaise, au Consulat et a 

l’empereur Napoleon I. . . . don’t la vente aura lieu > . . . le 22 septembre. [1902  . . . .Amsterdam, 1902] 4 plates.

Catalogue des medailles grecques, monnaies romains .  . . . monnaies Byzantines et des divers etats des Indes. Quelques livres numismatiques. 

En vente aux prix marques. [No. 40] Amersfoort [1902] 64 p. 3 plates.

        Catalogue d'une collection importante de médailles artistiques et historiques, de médailles de la Réformation, de médailles de sauvetage et pour des 

actes de dévouement ...: de la collection de feu Monsieur J. van Doorninck. 1905

        Vieux Delft; porcelaines de la Chine et du Japon; meubles; pendules et horloges de corridor; argenterie antique (1907)

        Médailles; plaquettes artistiques; monnaies grecques et romaines (1908)

        Monnaies du Moyen-Age, par ordre alpahbétique (1908)

        Catalogue des riches collections numismatiques de feu son excellence de Général Noguet à Madrid, de Monsieur Mr. D. J. Van Doorninck 

à Zwolle, d'un ... Medailles artistiques.. January 1, 1911.

        Collection importante H.T. Grogan à Londres 1914

Bibliography :

The Numismatist, Volume XIV No. 2, February (1901) : 55;

            The Numismatist, Vol. XVIII, No. 1, January (1905) : 25; No. 2, February (1905) : 50

Mehl’s Numismatic Monthly, Vol. III, No. 11, November (1910) : 175 (half-page ad)

            The Numismatist, Vol. XV, No. 4, April (1902) : 107

            The Numismatist, April (1914) : 223 Obit

Alfred R. Bellinger and Philip Grierson, eds., Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the 

Whittmore CollectionVolume 1. xxi

 100 Jaar Numismatiek : En reporte (Amsterdam : Jacques Schulman, 1980)

"The Two Schulmans : Hans and Jacques," The E-Sylum: Volume 8, Number 26, June 26, 2005, Article 16

David Hill, "Maurice Frankenhuis Built : A Collection to Rember," ANS Magazine, No. 3 (2017) : 41-49

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